Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz
(MCU) is a programmable device that contains various sets of hardware elements that are integrated together into a single IC (Integrated Circuit). These individual elements, such as memory and I/O (input and output peripherals) can be utilized in conjunction with one another to accomplish various tasks that a single central processing unit (CPU) couldn't do alone.
Some microcontrollers can take analog input directly in, as well as high powered signals that would otherwise damage a more delicate processing unit. Digital and analog input and output hardware can be included in a microcontroller that unlike assembling a PC computer, come pre-packaged all as one device. This drastically simplifies the system and makes using a microcontroller very attractive in a robot. Some example microcontrollers used in robotics include Microchop PICs and Arduinos.